Christian Leadership Center



The Glorious Messiah and the Messianic Age


 Isaiah 9:1-7




For this section of the notes I shall provide a fully written exposition of the text to demonstrate how the exegetical details can be incorporated into an expository style.  The length of the time allowed for the exposition will determine if parts must be shortened or cut.  But having already determined in the exegetical process what the central theological ideas are, I will be able to condense around them rather easily.


An Exposition of Isaiah 9:1-7




In spite of all the advances of civilization, the world today is still consumed with a desire for peace and a fear of war.  When people observe the conflicts and the rumors of wars, gloom and despair often engulf them like a thick darkness.  Not the least of the trouble spots is the Middle East.  Peace there has been the pursuit for centuries.  While there have been scores of efforts to bring about peace between Israel and Syria and the Palestinians, no one would be surprised if war broke out tomorrow.

Peace movements and peace negotiations proceed all over the world.  Stronger countries believe that peace must be negotiated from a position of power; radical groups believe that terror will force the issue.  But we are left with a more dangerous and more frightening world than ever before.  And we are left wondering if anyone is  really interested in peace and righteousness and justice for all, or just in securing their own interests?

The problem is still the presence of evil.  It sets brother against brother, and nation against nation.  Ultimately, the world's gloom and despair is linked to spiritual darkness.

The Bible comforts and reminds those of us who have come to trust in Jesus Christ not to despair as if there was no hope.  We have the revelation of our Lord that not only announces His sovereign reign but also charts the course of world events.  One of the most significant revelations is found in Isaiah 9.

Against the background of the prophecy of war and destruction, darkness and gloom (chapter 8) Isaiah gave this prophecy about  the Messiah--the glorious coming king.  “Messiah” is a Hebrew term that means “anointed one,” that is, the anointed king.  In a sense, every king who was anointed in Jerusalem as a descendant of David would be called a “mashiah” (pronounced mah-she-ack),  a messiah.  But the Bible tells how ultimately a son of David would come who would be known as “the Messiah.”  We believe that Jesus Christ is that Messiah.  The New Testament word “Christ” is the Greek translation of the Hebrew word “Messiah.”  This Messianic Prophecy, then, holds out hope for peace and righteousness through the reign of Jesus the Messiah.

The text can be divided into two sections: the Dawn of the Messianic Age (verses 1-5) and the Righteous Reign of the Messiah (verses 6 and 7).  While the entire passage is instructive for the message, the verses that focus on the nature of the Messiah are critical, for therein lies our hope for everlasting peace.  So most of our attention will be given to the meanings of the name of the Son, showing how these description fit perfectly the nature of our Lord Jesus Christ.




I.  Peace will come with the dawn of the Messianic Age (9:1-5).


Isaiah declares that in contrast to his present age of war, gloom, and despair, there is coming an age when peace will reign universally.  It will begin with the coming of the Messiah, the promised future king.  So we call that period the Messianic Age.  The prophet here shows how it will unfold.

A.  The change in circumstances will end the despair (1,2).

The passage begins with the announcement of the change: there will be no more gloom for those in anguish; in the past the LORD humbled[1] the northern lands of Zebulun and Naphtali, but in the future he will honor[2] Galilee.  Why?  That is where the Messiah will first appear--Galilee of the Gentiles,[3] a place looked down on for so long as less spiritual, less pure than Judea.

The explanation of this exaltation is found in verse 2.  Those who walk in darkness have seen a great light, on those in the land of the shadow of death a light has dawned.  The language is poetic: darkness signifies adversity, despair, gloom and evil, and the light signifies prosperity, peace, and joy.[4]  The language is used elsewhere of the Messianic Age--Malachi says that the "sun of righteousness will rise with healing in his wings" (4:2).  So the people in the north who have suffered so much have the prospect of a wonderful new beginning.

We should note in passing that Isaiah's verbs are in the past tense--he writes as if it has already happened.  That is prophetic language.  The prophet was a "seer" or visionary.  He received divine revelation and recorded what he saw.  As far as he was concerned, if it had been shown to him from God, it was as good as done.  It was certain, even though it had not yet worked out in history.

So "light" will shine on people who were walking in "darkness."  The initial fulfillment of this prophecy is beyond doubt.  Matthew quotes this text in conjunction with the beginning of Jesus' ministry in Galilee.  He is the true light of the world that lights every person.[5]  He brings to a darkened world grace and truth, and the sure promise of peace.  When He began to minister in Galilee with His teachings and His miracles, He demonstrated that He was indeed this Messiah.  His proclamation of the kingdom through salvation is what ends the despair, for believers in Him are not lost in gloom and despair, for they know that what He promised will come to pass at His second coming.[6]

B.  The Messiah brings joy and prosperity (3).

The prophet turns to address the LORD directly.  His words explain what it means that light will dispel the darkness--joy and prosperity will follow.  The prophet gives no clue as to how soon this would happen.[7]  But we who have the full revelation of God know that Jesus made it clear that he was the Messiah, and that the age of peace and righteousness was yet future.

The joy described here is extravagant.  It is the kind of joy that comes at the harvest, or at the dividing of the plunder.[8]  Harvest was a regular time of joy in Israel; after a long time of labor in the fields the people would gather to eat and drink and celebrate.  The Bible often uses the analogy of the harvest to describe the coming of the LORD (see Matthew 3:12 for the harvest and winnowing imagery).  It is a thanksgiving celebration for the completion of the harvest.

Dividing the plunder, the other image here, is a bit more poignant since wars will lead up to the end of the age.  The image is about the victors after the battle is over, dividing up the booty.  Such would be an almost delirious celebration of triumph that would usher in an age of peace.

C.  Joy comes through the cessation of war (4, 5).

The imagery of joy at the division of the plunder leads directly into the explanation: the prophet foresees the time when the LORD will break the oppression of the enemies.  He draws the analogy with the time of Israel's victory over Midian through Gideon by the power of the LORD.[9]  So shall it again be.

But this victory will be greater.  Verse 5 says that the implements of war will be burnt up.[10]  This will be no lull in the action, no temporary peace treaty.  War will end.  Elsewhere Isaiah has says, "They shall beat their swords into ploughshares," that is, military weapons will not be needed in a time of lasting peace.

How can these things be, given the world situation as we know it?  The answer to this question is found in the second half of the oracle which describes the nature of the Messiah who will bring in the reign of peace and righteousness.  If such peace is to come, someone must have the ability to produce and maintain it.


II.  Peace will finally come with the righteous reign of the Messiah (9:6,7).


Isaiah now turns to introduce the One who will transform the gloom and despair of war into the joy and peace of a time of righteousness--the Messiah.

A.  The LORD will bring about the advent of the Messiah (6a).

The first part of the prophecy is very familiar to Christians: "For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given, and the government shall be upon his shoulders."  Isaiah is very precise here, as we now know.  A child will be born into the family of David, and that there was a birth in Bethlehem is beyond question; but the Messiah will also be a Son that is given, and that Jesus did not come into existence in Bethlehem is clear from the Bible.

According to the Davidic Covenant (2 Sam. 7:14), the term "son" is a title for the king.[11]  The same is true in the vision of Daniel where the expression "Son of Man" is used (7:9-14).  Daniel's vision shows this glorious king in the presence of the Almighty, the Ancient of Days, and that he would be given the kingdom of peace.  Isaiah announces that the child to be born will be this Son given.  This idea is then clarified by Paul: "In the fullness of time, God sent forth His Son, born of a woman . . . ." (Gal. 4:4).

The New Testament bears witness that Jesus is this Son who came into the world.  In fact, Jesus Himself set about to prove His origin was in heaven, not in Bethlehem.  When He was about to raise Lazarus from the dead, he prayed and included these words in His prayer: "that they might know that You sent Me" (John 11:42).  By this He meant that He was from above, and they were from below.  Or, in debating with the religious leaders Jesus asked how David could call his descendant his "Lord," clearly showing that the "Son of David," the Messiah, was greater than David (Mark 12:35,36, regarding Psalm 110).  And of course, to the woman at the well Jesus clearly revealed Himself: she said, "When the Messiah comes, He will declare all things to us."  Jesus said, "I that speak to you am He" (John 4:25,26).

It is clear, then, that Jesus claimed to be the Messiah, the Christ, the child born into the house of David, the Son given by God to be the long expected King.  The first advent of Jesus established His identity; it did not begin His reign, however, for He has yet to put down all enemies.

The prophecy that "the government will be upon His shoulder" will come to complete reality at His second coming--an aspect of the Messianic prophecies that the prophets did not see (see 1 Peter 1:10,11).  The reference to the shoulder is probably a reference to the wearing of an insignia of office on the shoulder (see Isa. 22:22).[12]  There will be a time when this Son will rule as king.

We may say that Jesus now reigns above, and that is certainly true.  But Isaiah envisions a time of universal peace and righteousness in this world.  That has not happened yet.  Hebrews 1 states that this exaltation will be complete when the Father again brings His firstborn into the world.  So Isaiah does not know when all these things will take place; only that they will happen because the Word of the LORD has declared it.

B.  The Messiah will be a Wonder King (6b).

The nature of the Messiah is now portrayed in the listing of His throne names.  It must be noted that these are not names in the sense that we have names.  These are character descriptions.  They are intended to give the nature or the significance of the person named.  We use the word "name" at times in this way.  We may say, "She made a name for herself," that is, a reputation.  The names in this section describe the nature of the glorious king.

Moreover, in the ancient Near East kings were in the habit of taking throne names when they ascended the throne.  They took titles and added epithets to their names.  Usually the epithets they chose were too generous for mere mortals.  For example, in the Middle Kingdom of Egypt the rulers took five titles when crowned--each name referring to some god, some land, some aspiration they had for their administration.  One king who was crowned heard the priest say, "Let the great names of the good god and his titles be made like those of [the god] Re: Mighty Bull, One Capable of Planning, Great in Wonders, Filled with Truth, Son of Re to whom life is given."  So in these epithets the King would be extolled as the repository of might, wisdom, wonders, truth, and all life.  These are, to be sure, rather ambitious.

There is evidence of such titling in Israel, especially in cases where God bestowed names on new kings.  Psalm 2, the coronation psalm, says, "You are my Son, this day I have begotten you."  So on the day the king ascended the throne he was declared to be the Son, that is, God's anointed King.  So too in 2 Samuel 23:1 do we find a proliferation of names for David: "David, the son of Jesse, the man exalted by the Most High, the man anointed by the God of Jacob, Israel's singer of songs."  And then we have the LORD's sending prophets to rename kings, such as calling Solomon Jedidiah (2 Sam. 12:25).

But there is nothing to compare with the type of names found in Isaiah 9.  The only names comparable are those honorific titles of Egyptian kings.  They all had grandiose, ambitious throne names.  Each name had a permanent title and then a variable description.  So too in Isaiah: Counsellor, God, Father, and Prince are the permanent titles; wonderful, mighty, everlasting, and peace are the variables.  But Isaiah is affirming that the one who is coming will not merely have great titles, but will in reality be what those titles claim.  What had been a hope, a wild dream, or monarchs for ages will surely become a reality some day.  With a king such as this, peace is assured.  There is no hope in some pagan Egyptian king who made great claims; the only hope is in the Word of the LORD that promised Immanuel.[13]

1. Wonderful Counselor.  The first words used to describe this Son have usually been separated in the English Bibles to form two epithets.  But Isaiah himself joins these two terms together in Isaiah 28:29.  So probably, as with the other titles, the one word serves to qualify the other--he is a wonder of a counselor.[14]

"Wonderful" is a word that primarily describes the LORD or extraordinary or supernatural things in the Scriptures; it means "extraordinary, surpassing, marvelous, wonderful."  It was not used in a trivial sense, as we often use the English word "wonderful."  For example, in Genesis 18 the LORD announced the birth of Isaac to the aging Abraham and Sarah.  When Sarah laughed in her heart, the LORD, knowing she laughed, said, "Is anything too hard for the LORD?"  "Hard" is our word--Is anything too marvelous, wonderful, extraordinary, for the LORD?  Or again, David, meditating on the knowledge of the LORD, came to realize that the LORD knows everything about him, his thoughts, his intentions, even the words he is trying to say, all of it (Ps. 139:1-6).  He marvels, "Such knowledge is too wonderful for me!"  Or again, when the Angel of the LORD appeared to Manoah, Manoah inquired, "What is your name?"  To this the visitor responded, "Why do you ask my name, seeing that it is Wonderful?"  Then, when the flame on the altar blazed up, the Wonderful Angel ascended to heaven.

To describe the king with this Hebrew word "wonderful" is to ascribe to him extraordinary, normally supernatural abilities.  Jesus, by His mighty words, showed Himself to be wonderful in this sense.  In John 11:25 he said, "I am the resurrection and the Life; whoever believes in me will live, even though he dies."  Then, to authenticate His claims He raised Lazarus from the dead.  That is extraordinary.  It is marvelously surpassing.  It is wonderful.  We would have to say with Nicodemus that no man can do these thing apart from God.  Jesus has the words of life because He has power over life and death.  What a King He shall be!

The second word in the title is "Counselor."  The word means "one who plans."  It means he has the wisdom to rule.  Isaiah 11:2 will explain that this king, this Immanuel, has the Spirit of Counsel, that is, his wisdom to rule is God-given (compare Solomon's wisdom).  The word "king" as well as other related terms are related to the idea of decision-making.  Kings make decisions; they give counsel.  At times they must surround themselves with counselors to make the right decisions.  But this king will be a wonder of a counselor.

Jesus' teachings and judgments showed that He was a great counsellor.  His insight was supernatural--He knew what was in people.  In John 1:48-51 He rightly analyzed Nathanael; He said, "I saw you while you were under the fig tree before Philip called you."  To which Nathanael replied, "Rabbi, You are the Son of God, You are the King of Israel."  He recognized the Wonderful Counselor when He appeared.  So too did the woman at the well in John 4.  She said, "Come and see a man who told me everything I ever did.  Is not this the Christ?"  Or again, when the Jews sent men to bring Jesus bound hand and foot to them, they returned empty-handed.  Their reason?  "No man ever spoke like this man" (John 7:26).  This work of our Lord continues today, for when He went away He promised to send another counselor (John 14:16), the Holy Spirit, who would continue to counsel by His Word, to convict, to teach, and to transform people.

What made Jesus such a wonderful counselor?  He knew what was in man (John 2:25).  He had that wonderful knowledge of which David spoke.  And it continues.  What is it in the seven letters to the churches in Revelation that is His constant theme?  Jesus says, "I know your works."  That needs very little explanation; it is painfully clear.

2. The Mighty God.  Not only was Messiah to be wonderful in counsel, he was to be the image of God as no other was.  The term "God" can be used of kings and judges in the Old Testament.[15]  But Isaiah does not use it that way, unless that is the sole meaning here.  Every other time Isaiah uses the term "God" (’el) he means deity.  In fact, he has just announced in chapters 7 and 8 that this king would be known as ‘Immanu-’el, "God with us."  To say "a king is with us" would be of little effect.  But to say that a king is coming whose power will display that God is with the people--that is a sign.

There is another passage that uses "mighty" and "God" together to describe Messiah.  Psalm 45:3 says, "Gird your sword, O Mighty One . . . Your throne, O God, is forever and ever."[16]  So the King would be known as the powerful one, the mighty God.[17]

This epithet, no matter how translated, would be too generous for a mere mortal.  It actually brings the ideology of divine kingship into Jerusalem and applies it to some future king.  But Jesus claimed such for Himself as well.  He claimed to be divine.  According to John 8:58 He identified Himself as the great I AM of the Old Testament, the sovereign Lord God of Israel.  In Matthew 24:30 he announced, "All power is given to me."  "I AM"--"all power."  In sum, Jesus is the Mighty God.

The apostles bear witness to this.  John declares He is God in the flesh, the agent of creation (John 1:1-3).  And Paul reminds us of His deity and His power in Ephesians 1:18-21.  What might have seemed to Isaiah's audience to be an honorific title, or a description of one who would rule as God's vice-regent, became historically true and literal in Jesus Christ, for the mighty God came in the flesh.

3. The Everlasting Father.  The third title in many ways is the most striking.  It is literally "father of perpetuity," that is, one who will be perpetually the father.  In Canaanite religion the high god is called "father of years," and this title in Hebrew seems to carry a similar force.[18]  It describes one who produces, directs, and is lord over the ages.[19]

The title might be taken to mean that this wonder king has the durability to rule.  But the use of the terms in the Old Testament suggests another view.  The Messiah--the King--was to be known as the "Son," not the Father, according to the Davidic Covenant.  The covenant said that God would be to the king a father, and the king would be to Him a son (2 Sam. 7:14).  But here in Isaiah the Son is called the Father.  The point in Isaiah is that the sovereign LORD who had always enthroned the Davidic kings would come and rule as the Messiah.

This seeming confusion of “persons” shows up in a couple of other prophecies.  In Isaiah 48:15-16 the LORD God Almighty is speaking and says, "I, even I, have spoken; Yes, I have called him, I have brought him, and his way will prosper.  Come near to Me, hear this: I have not spoken in secret from the beginning; from the time that it was, I was there.  And now the LORD God and His Spirit have sent Me."  The same phenomenon of the LORD being both the sovereign who sends Messiah and Messiah who is sent is found in Malachi 3:1-5.

Now all this seems a bit confusing, but the statements of Jesus confirm the fact that the "Son" who is given is also known as the Father.  Jesus said, "I am not of this world" (John 8:23), "I came in My Father's name" (John 5:43), and finally, "I and the Father are one" (John 10:30).[20]  So Jesus is the expressed image of the Father, the Sovereign king-maker.  By taking this title, Everlasting Father, the Messiah is to be known as the One who is the sovereign Lord over the ever changing years--he produces and directs eternity.[21]  Such a name belongs to a god, not just any divine creature or spiritual being, but to the God.

4. The Prince of Peace.  This last title means that the Messiah will be one who ensures for his people the blessings of peace.  He will be a prince who brings peace.[22]  The word "peace" is used as an epithet for the LORD as well as the King.  In Judges 6:24 because of the greeting of "peace" from the Angel of the LORD the place was called "The LORD is peace."  Whenever the LORD visited his people, whether by the Angel of the LORD or by His promised Messiah, it was to announce or promise peace to the world (Isa. 11:6-9; Ps. 72:3,7).

But the Hebrew concept of "peace" is more than the absence of war.  To Isaiah, peace is a condition in which all things follow their destiny undisturbed.  Elsewhere the prophet will talk of the lion lying down with the lamb, and children playing at the viper's nest.  This can only occur, of course, when major changes in nature are made.  Therefore Isaiah's vision of the Messianic Age will culminate in the prophecy of a new heaven and a new earth--there will be a whole new creation!

It is at this point that we find a little difficulty in the New Testament.  Jesus claimed to be the Messiah, no doubt; but His teachings on peace seem to be contradictory.  He said, "Come unto me all you who labor . . . and I will give you rest" (Matt. 11:28).  He also said, "Peace I give you"--not as the world gives (John 14:27; 16:33).  The peace that Jesus brings is a peace that passes all understanding.

But Jesus also said, "I came not to bring peace, but a sword" (Matt. 10:34); "In this life you shall have trouble and persecution" (John 16:33).  So Jesus did not hold out the immediate prospect of Isaianic peace to His disciples.  He said that He was sending them among wolves, that brother would rise against brother, and that people would hate them and drag them before magistrates.

The simple and obvious conclusion is that Jesus brought peace with God through redemption by His death and resurrection, and will eventually bring total peace through His exalted reign over all the earth.  Jesus said that the kingdom was within us, and that it would also come with lightning flashes in the heavens (Luke 17:20-25).  So we yet await the fulfillment of the Isaianic vision of peace in this trouble-torn world.

C.  Messiah will reign in righteousness (7).

The prophet declares that peace and righteousness will characterize the reign of Messiah.  Such is not the case now, but is to come.  That is why Christians pray, "Thy kingdom come, Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven."  That reign will then issue into the eternal state (1 Cor. 15:23-25).

All of this will be accomplished by the "zeal of the LORD."[23]  On the one hand "zeal" here indicates the divine resentment for honor so long abused; and on the other hand it means that His love flares up to fulfill His promises to His own people.




The central idea of Isaiah's oracle is as follows: Complete and lasting peace comes with the righteous reign of the divine Messiah.  The prophet anticipates that the present gloom at the prospect of war will be replaced by the joy of peace.  That peace can only be accomplished through a King who is a Wonderful Counselor, the Mighty God, the Everlasting Father, and the Prince of Peace.  Righteousness and peace is impossible without Him; nothing is impossible for Him.

The words of the prophet held out hope for his generation.  God was not abandoning His people to invasion and disaster, but was promising that in spite of the prospect of war there was a glorious future ahead.  And on the eve of the birth of Jesus the nation also felt the oppression of world conflict and the despair it brings.  Into that world Jesus came, clearly claiming to be the Messiah of Israel, this Wonder King.  But His first coming was to lay the foundation of the glory that would follow, that is, His death on the cross would reconcile people to God, bringing them into eternal peace with God through the forgiveness of sins.  And so now as we look forward to His coming again, the words of Isaiah hold out hope for us too.  Wars and conflicts abound; despair and depression accompany the fear of danger and aggression.  But the Word of God is clear: there is coming a time of complete and lasting peace with the coming of Messiah.  There is hope.  We who know the LORD by faith need not despair as those without hope. 

But what then are we to do while we wait for this King?  First, it is our task to carry on the ministry that Isaiah had, to announce to the world the only hope, Jesus the Messiah.  Our primary concern is that people find eternal peace with God.  We are the ambassadors for this King, calling others to be reconciled with God.  And what goes along with this?  Our lives must be purified from sin so that we may present to others the hope of righteousness.  Our efforts must be tireless to declare to the world that the hope of peace rests with Jesus Christ and none other.  And our promotion of causes of peace and righteousness must be consistent with our message, in our families, our communities and our world.

But secondly, this passage also instructs us about the resources available to us even now from our King.  We know that Jesus is the Wonderful Counsellor, so we may obtain instruction and guidance for our lives from Him and in His Word.  He is the Mighty God, for all power is given to Him, so we may trust Him to accomplish great things in and through us.  He is the Everlasting Father, so we may take comfort in the stability that knowing our sovereign Lord reigns brings.  And, He is our Prince of Peace, so we may rest in Him, knowing that because of Jesus Christ all is well between us and God.  In short, these descriptions of our Lord Jesus Christ are calls to greater prayer, greater confidence, and greater service.




Bourke, Joseph.  "The Wonderful Counselor."  CBQ 22 (1960):123-143.

Brodie, Louis.  "The Children and the Prince: The Structure, Nature, and Date of Isaiah 6-12."  Bib. Theol. Bull.  9 (1979):27-31.

Carlson, R. A.  "The Anti-Assyrian Character of the Oracle in Isaiah 9:1-6."  VT 24 (1974):130-135.

Crook, Margaret B.  "Did Amos and Micah Know Isaiah 9:2-7 and 11:1-9?"  JBL 73 (1954):144-151.

Driver, G. R.  "Isaiah ix 5-6."  VT 2 (1952):356-357.

Rignell, Lars G.  "A Study of Isaiah 9:2-7."  T Luth Q 7 (1955):31-35.

Snaith, Norman H. "The Interpretation of El Gibbor in Isaiah ix. 5 (EVV v. 6)."  The Expository Times 52 (1940-41):36-37.

Treves, Marco.  "Little Prince Pele-Joez."  VT 17 1967):464-77.

Wolf, Carl Umhau.  "Luther on the Christmas Prophecy, Isaiah 9."  T Luth Q  5 (1953):388-90.




     [1]The expression is a metonymy of either adjunct or effect; the reference is to the invasions that destroyed the northern kingdom.

     [2]This then would also be a metonymy of effect or adjunct, the blessing of the people with peace and prosperity will be His way of bringing them honor.  The Hebrew verbs qalal ("light," "treat lightly," "curse") and kabad ("heavy," "treat as important," "honor") form a fine contrast.

     [3]The reference to "Gentiles" makes sense in light of the Assyrian policy of bringing in many people from different lands.  Galilee had always been rather cosmopolitan because it was on the trade routes, but the wars filled it with foreigners.  By the time of Jesus it had such a reputation that the very righteous and pious Jews would have little to do with it.

     [4]The figure is hypocatastasis.  The Bible loves to use night and darkness to represent evil and destruction and despair, and light or day to signify righteousness, joy, and hope.  It was a natural image to express the dawning of a new day--a new beginning after trouble. 

     [5]This would be a metaphor--Jesus is compared to a light.  The idea of shining on every person carries many connotations; at the heart of the expression is surely the idea of the conviction of sin, for the New Testament uses darkness for evil, and light for righteousness.

     [6]Isaiah, like the other prophets, just speak of what Messiah will do, not when he will do it.  They did not know of two comings, one to die, and one to reign.  But there can be no reign unless salvation for sin is first established.

     [7]Indeed, the transition from chapter 8 to chapter 9 reads as a direct continuity, but it covers over 700 years.  Exact chronology is not possible in reading prophetic passages.  The "light" appeared in Galilee some 2000 years ago, but the culmination of this prophetic word remains.

     [8]The figures are similes.  The feeling of completion and relaxation and exuberation are greatest in these kinds of experience, so they offer a glimpse of the joy at the end of the age.

     [9]The allusion to Midian links the passage to Judges. The main  implication is that God will end the oppression; but there is also the suggestion that Messiah will be a Gideon-like figure. 

     [10]The figure used in here is synecdoche; the things mentioned represent the kinds of elements in war.

     [11]The language is metaphorical, both in Samuel and in Psalm 2. The king will be like a son, an adopted son, to God, heir of the kingdom.  Of course, the metaphor "son" as it applies to Jesus also carries with it the meaning that He shares the nature of God--eternal and divine.

     [12]The figure would then be either metonymy of adjunct or hypocatastasis; it would be the former if he really was going to wear an insignia, and the latter if he is not.  The latter is probably the better view, since the reign of the Messiah is not likely to have all the literal trappings of an earthly monarch.  He is saying that the king bears the weight of office.

     [13]So there may be a polemical element here as well because the Israelites were wont to make treaties with Egypt for safety.  The prophet would be alluding to Egypt's titles but only to show that such titles would be true in Immanuel's case.

     [14]The construction then has a genitive of specification.  He is wonderful, specifically as a counsellor.

     [15]Moses in Exodus 7:1 is called a god; judges in Psalm 82 are called "gods."  So the term could be used for theocratic leaders who spoke for God.

     [16]This passage is quoted in Hebrews as being fulfilled in Jesus Christ.  The language of the psalm could have been applied to a human king in a general way, but the writer of Hebrews, pulling many passages together in his treatise, saw how the language ultimately applied literally to Christ.

     [17]There are several ways to translate the phrase: "God of might," "mighty God," "mighty hero," or "god-like hero." The various commentaries will deal with the variations in the context of the chapter and in relation to prophecy. 

     [18]The Ugaritic text has ’abu sanimi, "father of years."  The Canaanite expressions are often the same as Hebrew; they are simply applied to the wrong persons.

     [19]The genitive should be taken as genitive of the thing possessed, which is close to objective genitive--he produces and controls the ages.  The English "everlasting Father" is the translation of an attributive genitive; while this is certainly possible it does not provide the clear meaning of rulership.

     [20]The individual statements of Scripture about Messiah (in the Old Testament) and that Jesus made (in the New Testament) are frequently capable of one or two interpretations.  But when they are all put together, they clearly point in the same direction.  And that the Jews understood this is clear, because they charged Jesus with blasphemy.  One of the best evidences of the meaning of what Christ said is this response.

     [21]Micah 5:12 will also describe Messiah as one whose goings have been from everlasting.

     [22]An attributive genitive--peaceful prince--would mean little in the oracle.   The genitive must express what is produced by the prince.

     [23]The Hebrew word "zeal" describes a passionate intensity to defend a threatened institution or possession.  When it describes a passionate desire for the wrong thing, or with the wrong motivation, it means "jealousy, envy."  But when its motive is correct, it is zeal.